This list arose from several conversations in which people admitted they did not know of any female scholars in NT scholarship. I made a quick list of female scholars in the NT field to act as a reference point for those conversations. A few caveats: the list is not meant to be exhaustive. The selected works, for example, are only a part (a very small part in some cases) of their contributions to academia. I also did not include deceased scholars as there is a plethora of active, excellent female scholars which can be cited here. Feel free to take this list and make it better–it’s meant as a starting point rather than an exhaustive directory.
The list below consists of ~120 female NT scholars, their interests, and 2-3 of their published works. Their names include links to their faculty pages when available. The list is in alphabetically order sorted by the very last name. This list purposefully skews towards English works, but I have included several German scholars as well with Wayne Coppin’s helpful list (see below). Clearly, the list lacks Spanish, French, Italian, etc language scholars; again, this is just meant as a starting point rather than a directory.
See also the very helpful and regularly updated Women Biblical Scholars blog. For further information on German scholars along with some translations of selected works, see Wayne Coppins’ own list which includes many German scholars here.
As someone with even a cursory interest in researching the Bible, you’ve probably come across John Dyer’s little website BestCommentaries.com (BC). BC attempts to list and rank commentaries on the Bible in order “to help students at all levels to make good, informed decisions about which commentaries they should purchase.” Dyer knows that “scores and ratings alone” can’t tell the whole story, but he hopes “the combined resources available through this site points [students or pastors] in the right direction.”
Since my thesis topic has me flipping through dozens of Luke commentaries each week, I thought I’d write a short post on which commentaries are most helpful to me and why. Commentaries have five basic jobs: (1) give the reader a better historical understanding of the world in which the text was produced and (2) in which the first audiences resided; (3) interact substantially with the Greek text; (4) give some details on how the text might apply to modern readers; (5) summarize previous scholarship while simultaneously adding something new.
It goes without saying that different commentary series do different things. Some are more theological, others are more linguistically inclined, and still others more historical in nature. All have their place (well, maybe not all). I’m going to recommend the commentaries I keep going back to. I’ve categorized them entirely subjectively, but hopefully the categories are helpful.
I recently attended the 2nd Annual German (and) Theology International Summer School in Mainz, Germany hosted by the Johannes-Gutenberg University. Sarah Prime from St. Mary’s, Twickenham gave a short review of her experience on the Historical Jesus blog. Her positive review is one reason I found and consequently enrolled in the Summer School. I can echo many things she mentioned, such as the multi-cultural nature of the students hailing from several different universities, the overall format of the school, and the weekend excursions. I do want to go into just a bit more detail with my experience for a two main reasons: 1) to give the Summer School a bit more exposure; 2) to give advice to Christian Origins/Theology students who wish to improve their German and are actively seeking a German language summer course.
Mainz (pronounced kind of like “MINE-tz”) is located in central-west Germany in the Rhine valley. From the Frankfurt airport, Mainz is about 30 minutes away by train.
Because of the excellent transport links to and from Frankfurt, international travel is very easy. In our group, most students flew into Frankfurt, but some took long-distance trains and one even took a coach from London.
As a group, we were fairly spread out throughout the city. Most were in walking distance of our classroom, but the walks varied from 20-45 mins. I was in a host family in Mainz-Kastel, located on the eastern bank of the Rhine. Walking to the morning classroom would take well over an hour for me, so I took the bus each day which took about 30 minutes depending on traffic. Weekly bus passes are cheap (17.50€ vs. 2.75€ each way) with a student discount–just make sure you apply for a student fare card (Kundenkarte) before purchasing. You will get fined 60€ if you don’t have this card!
If you are taking public transport, you will have to overcome a number of hurdles. Some of them are quite difficult and others are just bureaucratic, but all of them are frustrating. German transit is very unfriendly to non-German speakers, and bus drivers are famously gruff and unhelpful. Several students (including me) were quite frustrated with this aspect of our stay.
If you are considering going and are interested in public transit, feel free to contact me below for advice.
The summer school generally followed a consistent pattern: grammar/translation in the morning (9:15 – 12:45PM), a long break in the afternoon, and lecture in the late afternoon. I’ll detail each of these below. Here is an overview of a typical week in the school.
Grammar and Translation of Luther
Grammar and Translation of Schleiermacher
Grammar and Translation of Schleiermacher
Grammar and Translation of Goethe
Grammar and Translation of Luther
Lecture on German Theology: From Luther to Barth
Reading/Translation groups: Schleiermacher in Context
Lecture on German Theology: From Luther to Barth
Workshop: Classic German Theological Works
Grammar and Translation
Since grammar lessons are fairly straight forward, I’ll focus on our translation.
On the first day, we were given our workbook (“Einführung ins theologische Deutsch”) totaling some 130 pages! The follow authors and works were included though most were just snippets:
Martin Luther – “Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen” (1520)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – “Das Göttliche” (1783)
Friedrich Schleiermacher – Über die Religion (1799) and Der christliche Glaube nach den Grundsätzen der evangelischen Kirche ins Zusammenhange dargestellt (1836)
Karl Barth – Römerbrief (1919)
Friedrich Gogarten – “Zwischen den Zeiten” (1920)
Karl Holl – Lutherrenaissance (1921)
Rudolf Bultmann – Jesus (1926)
Dietrich Bonhoeffer – Nachfolge (1937) and Ethik (1949)
Martin Hengel – “War Jesus Revolutionär?” (1969)
Jürgen Moltmann – Der gekreuzigte Gott (1972)
Ruben Zimmerman – “Fiktion des Faktischen” (2015)
We didn’t make it through every text during the program, but we did get through the majority of these works. After being assigned one of these texts, we separated into groups of 2-4 and worked on a paragraph or so of the text. After a while, we would reassemble and read our translations aloud to the teacher. The class had an informal feel. We all had the opportunity to ask grammatical questions to the teacher or translation group or give push-back on the given translation if need be. I was also very happy with the selected works.
Note that these texts will change from year to year depending on the interests of the incoming students. Our cohort included a large amount of NT Ph.D. students, so we focused on the NT instead of the OT. Following years will include different authors. I’m told if you register early enough, you can let the organizer’s know what your interests are, and they will plan the subject matter accordingly.
The JGU Protestant Theology department led each lecture. For the first week, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Volp taught about the historical context in German theology from Luther to Barth. In week two, Prof. Dr. Friedrich W. Horn and Dr. Eckart Schmidt introduced us to several scholars, but we focused primarily on Rudolf Bultmann and Martin Hengel. In week three, Prof. Dr. Volker Küster introduced us to intercultural theology and missiology in the 21st century. I was very happy to hear about German theology and contexts from German scholars, and I was introduced to some excellent literature in German of which I was unaware previously.
As an example, we were introduced in the first week to the different ways German scholars have interpreted Martin Luther throughout history. First, Luther’s image as a religious and social revolutionary became a nationalistic icon in Germany as a type of “heroic German” which the Third Reich famously utilized. In contrast, other German Luther scholars also saw in Luther an academic monk who though rebellious in nature was more interested in an academic debate than a revolution. These, of course, are broad-stroke summaries, but it was great to hear these types of conversations that have gone on in German scholarship.
Each participant receives a username and password in their welcome packet. This username allows you to use the internet, online resources, and check out library books. We received an introduction to these resources during our first week. Our access to electronic resources lasts several weeks, but we were able to ask for electronic access for up to a year if we wished. The online library page is somewhat frustrating–all databases are not connected to the main search engine. I was able to find most items easy enough. I should mention that eduROAM works perfectly with JGU’s internet.
Both the theological library and the central library had plenty of spaces to research. The NT room had an impressive amount of works. And, if you look hard enough, you could find a few books from Rudolf Bultmann’s personal library donated some time ago!
For 2016, the JGU summer school was 1,200€. The cost includes accommodation and tuition but not food or public transport. My host family was kind enough to provide me with food, but I don’t think other families did the same. Even so, groceries are very cheap in Germany, and lunches at the Central Mensa (cafeteria) only cost between 3.50€-4.50€ depending on what you get. Transport is relatively cheap; I paid about 75€ in total (including train tickets to and from the airport). If you’d rather walk or bike, Mainz is very bike friendly. My host offered this option, but I can barely walk and chew gum never mind negotiate traffic on a bike! Biking or walking will save around 50€.
While this amount may seem expensive (and 1,200€ is certainly nothing to sneeze at), most summer schools through the DAAD have similar costs. If you look at the Goethe Institut, most courses are more expensive for the same amount of training.
If you apply early enough, some small scholarships are distributed to help stave off costs. Many of us coming from UK universities were able to have a least a portion of costs paid by the university. Be sure to check with your supervisor before applying if money might be an issue for you.
Would I recommend this specific Summer school for Biblical studies/theology students? Yes without hesitation for three reasons.
First, we studied theological texts. Other DAAD or Goethe courses focus on spoken German whereas theological texts are written in a completely different register than conversational German. At least one friend attended a Goethe Institut course to improve their German and learned basic conversational language such as ordering beer from a pub. While this is certainly an invaluable skill, it won’t help when reading Bultmann (unless you happen to be at a German pub!).
Second, the JGU summer school wasn’t designed to be a holiday. We were all exhausted at the end of our stay and for good reason! We were there to study German, and we did so. I was very pleased the course gave more contact hours. Though the schedule itself may need some tune up, I have no doubt that they are very near the “perfect” balance of language training and lecturing.
Third, and perhaps most important, my German improved substantially. Although it is difficult to quantify my language acquisition, my knowledge of the German language and reading speed of German literature has noticeably improved. I am also more confident in my abilities to tackle German articles and translate them myself (instead of heading for Google translate immediately!).
My special thanks to Prof. Dr. Ulrich Volp and Frau Rachel Friedrich for squeezing me into the school less than 2 weeks before it began (!) and to my hosts Profs. Ruben and Mirjam Zimmerman and their lovely family for hosting me on such short notice.
Mohr Siebeck has just announced David W. Chapman and Eckhard Schnabel’s new monograph The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus. Before getting to Chapman and Schnabel’s book, a quick word on the research picture of crucifixion today.